SSW 09: Auto-archaeology and contextual data

Site and Subjective Writing (SSW)

22.11.2010 15 - 17 : SSW Session 09: AUTO-ARCHAEOLOGY & CONTEXTUAL DATA


Archaeo-ethnography, auto-archaeology: Introducing archaeologies of the contemporary past

“The archaeology of the recent and contemporary past—that is, the archaeology of places and events that relate to the period of recent or living memory—is a dynamic new field which engages critically with what it means to be ‘us’, with the politics of late-modernity, and with the nature, shape and relevance of archaeology as a contemporary research practice.”

(Harrison and Schofield, 2009: 1)

“Buchli and Lucas (2001a, b, c) mapped out a series of themes which they saw as characterising the archaeology of the contemporary past and which have been very influential on the development of the field.

They pointed to the linked themes of

disappearance/disclosure, and

in which they emphasised the role of the archaeology of the contemporary past in “bringing forward or indeed materialising that which is excessive, forgotten or concealed” (2001b: 171).

They suggest that as a result of this role, “this body of archaeological work begins to appear qualitatively different from more conventional archaeological projects and other disciplines working on the recent past” (2001b: 171).

A theme which was very prominent throughout Archaeologies of the Contemporary Past was that of the
subaltern, and the idea that archaeology has a major role to play in foregrounding those aspects of contemporary life at the margins which are constantly being overwritten by dominant narratives.”

(Harrison and Schofield, 2009: 4)

“consideration of the archaeology of the sort of ‘everyday’ space with which we might all be familiar… We might consider this to be a sort of ‘auto-archaeology’ in its particular focus on the space in which the author had worked.”

(Harrison and Schofield, 2009: 8)


Introduction to stratigraphical method

'Stratigraphy' refers mostly to the recording of layers or ‘strata’ primarily in the discipline of geology and archaeology.

In geology, stratification is the result of cycles of erosion and deposition, accumulation and solidification.

This process happens on a smaller scale in archaeological sites, and is interlaced with human alterations due to activities such as building and excavation.

By studying the relative chronology of the site, the layers of deposits and interventions by people over time, a representation and interpretation of the historical process and activity of the site may be obtained (Harris, 1979: 32).

Due to the destructive, irreversible approach of investigation, the removed deposits of an excavation dig, and whatever contents found within each context, are recorded empirically as the first step in the process of creating an archaeological record of a particular site.

When the end of one phase, and the start of another, is identified,
essentially an occupied surface is defined, which has for whatever reasons been abandoned, built upon, or adapted, and lies below the present surface.

Hence an empirically-based 'archaeological record' is made which transcribes the material (remains) in order to produce an 'archive of representations', consisting of a variety of textual comments, images and material samples.

Although this material record represents past events and processes at the site, some dynamics are too ambiguous to offer observational evidence (Barrett, 2000: 62).

LOOK: Images of different representations of Stratigraphy, from diagram, photo, abstraction, display


Ashish Chadha, investigating the genealogy of practices based on the concept of stratigraphy, notes it to be the most important 'mediational framework through which the temporality of a site is mapped', traversing between the spatial and the temporal. He writes:

the archaeological process of knowledge production is constructed through methods that are instruments of negotiation capable of manufacturing facts about past, explicating its nature, its expanse and its chronology.. A product of socialisation of the discipline in the larger discursive terrain of knowledge production through invocation, appropriation and usage of scientific methods.

Stratigraphy is constrained, Chadha writes, by the 'morality of accuracy in describing and explaining material culture' (Chadha, 2005), and attempts to construct an objective and emotional detachment to what is found there.

An abstract visualisation was developed by Dr. Edward Harris in the 1970s, known as the Harris Matrix, where the units encountered first, being the most recent deposits in history, are positioned at the top, and the lowest represents the earliest (Harris, 1979).

Each unit is spatially positioned on a graph according to its relative relationship to its neighbour, Before, After, Contemporary, Equivalent and No-relation (or no determinable relativity).

On the basis of this relativity, via date analysis or cross-examination of found artefacts within the stratum, the stratigraphic units illustrated would then be divided into groupings or phases as can be seen here:


These phases in the visualisation may represent the interpretation of distinct structural development, activity use within the space, or periods of narrative history, depending upon the evidence present.

Chadha points out such visualisations sit somewhere in between taxonomic classification—the mission of natural science since the sixteen century in classifying and arranging encountered nature into an orthodox nomenclature—and topographic cartography, the construction of maps and plans of the 'known world' in order to objectify an impartial and unprejudiced vision of places visited or controlled.

These were, according to Chadha, representations mostly devised by individuals who, through these strongly-held beliefs in objectivity, imposed their subjective ideologies on the natural, physical and material world (Chadha, 2005).

For example, Sir Mortimer Wheeler, one of the early and strongest proponents of stratigraphy in emerging archaeological practices in the early twentieth century, applied a distinctly colonial, militaristic and disciplinary approach his 'fact-finding' archaeological expeditions in India (Chadha, 2002).


Application towards authorship

The subjective authorship embedded in an standardised data set was ironically the feature that attracted my attention first to 'stratigraphical recording' as applied in archaeology.

I employed this approach in MSc thesis research, towards authoring sound design in virtual and augmented environments (Paterson, 2002a).

The experience of listening to the audio was imagined as analogous to that of an interpreting archaeologist: The interactor with the environment creates their own individual interpretation of 'narrative'; as a result of their movement through the space over time, accumulating fragments of stimuli or content to create meaning.

According to this image, an author of a spatio-temporal narrative may then follow a design method which defined the content of into a 'stratigraphical' record of different phases, relative contexts and artefacts.

Three-dimensional computer graphics were experimented with and employed to visualise complex data-sets in archeaological excavations, both on singular and multiple sites (Green et. all, 2001, 2003).

Similar, but with different agenda,
I represented an audio narrative also as a 3D graphical model (Paterson, 2002b) to visualise the spatio-temporal positions of a changing soundscape, in a defined space, over a pre-determined time.


This form was presented as a prototype demonstration/ visualisation for the LISTEN Immersive Audio-augmented Environments project (Eckel, 2001).

In the data-structure design I used in this prototype, I formed a set of nested objects, which mimicked the descriptive terms used in stratigraphical records during archaeological excavations:

Each 'Site' consisted of relative chronologically positioned units called 'Loci' (or 'Locus' singular).

Locus in Latin refers to place, but in archaeology, it is the term used for the sequence of different levels in an 'Area' (digging space) being excavated.


Locative Media

Engaging with emerging mobile technologies in 2003,

I re-imagined a 'stratigraphical narrative' to be something which could be authored as one travels, explores and takes media documentations on the move, a trail that is something both flexible and dynamic for others to interpret.

Introducing a proto- mobile publishing platform I was involved in co-developing between 2003-2004, I wrote:

“The lived experience of a place, what you and others do in it, and how it is perceived, is dynamic and always changing over time. It is a spatio-temporal diary, unwritten but fluid in material.. Personal memory gathers, shifts and adapts according to activity, event and journey.. When a moment of the here and now is captured as image, sound [or video] with a mobile-media device, not only is it filtered by the subjectivity of the capturer, it is removed from the present” (Paterson, 2003a).

The same year, during the Locative Media Workshop in Liepaja-Karosta, Latvia,

I created in collaboration with programmer Jo Walsh, a paper-based form that could be filled in, associating the act of media capture with other meta-data: spatio-temporal recording protocols while 'in the field'.

For example, objective location data from a GPS system or subjective data such as the self-assigned name of place, comments, media-type, and narrative sequence order (Paterson 2003b).


This 'locative packet', as further developed in object-orientated code-design (Walsh, 2004), was intended to be a 'container' or wrapper' context for media plus text 'removed' from the experienced moment, and placed in an data archive, to be recalled or re-/experienced at a later date.



Placed into an archival database of relational meta-data, the 'locative packets' are reflected upon and understood here as 'stratigraphical events' in a larger narrative.

Each being a particular context, which has a (set) of location descriptions, both objective and subjective, time, date; as-well as 'content', including stories, references and media which complements it.

In 2004, Nokia Corporation launched Lifeblog 1.0 software, a cross-platform 'logging' service which integrated the media and SMS communications sent and received by one's mobile phone into a blog format, creating a personal timeline or “multimedia diary”.

Furthermore, the documentation and sharing of 'presence' meta-data was an important issue in locative and mobile media research at the time, especially what data might be considered useful where, and when (Raento et al., 2005), and how meaning might be inferred by this information (Raento et al., 2006).

Both these socio-technological developments were close in awareness, and ongoing in the background of my own activity, and had an influence in how I documented my own activity.

Infact, I disengaged from automated, mobile and pervasive recording processes.


Fieldwork practice and accumulations

My own field work practice

—including collaborations with others' activity and practice over a period of 7-12 years: a resume, containing periods of travel, fieldwork, projects, artist/research residencies, presentations, workshops, teaching, installations and other events.

I apply academic discipline [doctoral studies] in reflection, to create a plan of the events and experiences in my 'known world', in order to objectify a partial and subjective vision.

I describe my creative practice as a progression from community and participatory art projects, through a combination of actions and (re-)presentations, into something which is presented as 'artistic fieldwork'.

Wrapped up in this practice—this way of doing things—are

methods, tacit and explicit knowledge about doing art with people,
aswell as an accumulation of experience and social context over time,
the formation of temporary and consistent communities,
and also identities formed through them.

Artistic fieldwork as a concept may be introduced first by acknowledging inspiration from different meanings it has in inter-disciplinary social sciences.

As we have seen..

Fieldwork is a term used in these social sciences to describe the collection of raw data 'in situ'.

In other words, 'first-hand' recording and observing in the field, doing research, making work as a researcher, situated in a particular situation, place, community, environment.

Usually this data and experience is then processed, interpreted and re-presented, most often as textual accounts and reports (Van Maanen, 1988: 1-4).

However, I claim

artistic fieldwork acknowledges a further set of involvements:

not only as an observer,
but the socially-minded artistic fieldworker purposely intervenes and contributes to the context,

initiating, supporting, engaging and closing interactions within community, social and public relations.

Furthermore, when creative practice, work, everyday life, habits, feelings, attitudes, believes, politics, friends, colleagues, collaborators are blurred as they often are in the artistic and activist scenes,

it can be difficult sometimes to distinguish when one is 'in the field', when one is doing 'fieldwork'.

Due to the mixture of these aspects, in writing up, I can only partially represent or objectify events.

I can highlight, edit, select, order and accumulate fragments, and subjectively manufacture facts about my past.

I reflect that

going on a travel (especially a funded one),

making a certain project (especially one related in a particular place, site, community, theme),

or working with a certain group of people (for example in a new collaboration)

have often defined the start and end of the artistic fieldwork, and 'switched on' the fieldwork 'mindset'.

There are not always distinct borders, but fuzzy questions about what should be included, what is significant and what is not.

Later in the process of making sense of the remaining materials I ask myself:

What is a significant event worth presenting or interpreting?

I have not maintained a regular fieldwork journal, or taken consistent note-taking during my projects.

I have been frequently or periodically recording.

With consumer-level digital recording devices, artistic fieldwork periods have been accompanied most often with

digital photo documentations,
although depending upon resources available, other recordings,
such as digital audio or video are made during the period.

Gathered into selective sequence,

these are most often employed afterwards in the showing and telling of experiences, processes, situations, and involvements.

Hence, I have written textual accounts from my audio-visual materials, after fieldwork.

Furthermore, for each event there are also

—mostly electronically or digitally archived—

correspondences and notes about ambitions and hopes, projections; notes about what to do, the time spent here, there, reflections, and plans to continue.

The process of initiating and undertaking these engagements has increasingly accumulated electronic folders full of communications with collaborators, institutions or host organisations both in advance, during and after the event.

All, if one wishes to look in the archive, include contextual data associated with these communications, including sender, receiver, date, time and often more, such as location-specific information.

As already noted, early work in 2003-2004 attempted to address the creative potentials of such documentations (with contextual meta-data associated in a database), as well as explore new platforms which could use such data systems to represent this content and context combined.

In the case of Mapmyths (aka Mapping and Sewing Together Mythologies) project illustrated in Table 1, the different types of 'media field-notes' (Paterson, 2004) that were created in the project; previous to, during, and following the recognised 'fieldwork' activities.


These media materials were documented with contextual representation in mind, and were published online to highlight these features:

First as segmented HTML webpages with image, video, and audio files and at least visual display of meta-tags; later within dynamic content management systems, such as a media-enhanced wiki, that allowed easy ways (at least easy in 2004) to share and adjust text and media content online.

However the emergent potential of the 'locative packet' within a dynamic associative database did not prove to be sustainable after 2005 for this author due to volunteer-based technical support, use of emergent software implementations which were not fully developed, and shifting aspirations.

Even if a server went down (as they did several times), the media field-notes, never-the-less, still gathered in personal and project folders, on laptops and hard-disks.


Identifying narratives in reflection

The fragmented discontinuities in data-storage and relationality meant, in the end, that some of these materials were not longer accessible or partial due to data loss.

This created difficulties in overviewing clearly the accumulations of digital materials over time.

Over a period of 7 years, experience and data has been distributed to different physical, sites, locations, communities, both online and offline, as well as accumulating on hard-disks.

I consider these to be important references, media field-note materials, which inform my 'writing up' of activities, and a reflective narrative, both within the cultural and academic story-making process.

The number of projects or processes increased, but also some had faded like the Mapmyths project due to different circumstances: busy collaborators, different focuses, absence of clear goals, lack of funds, and even online platforms being offline.

Some process have been rooted in a particular location, a particular institution, cultural centre or community, while others have spread between several locations, as emergent, inter-related or ongoing series of events.

At certain periods, clarity in reflection was gained via project folders:

Common practice is to put all files from a project together.

Artist residencies—for example, a residency in Riga/Liepaja, Latvia in 2004 for 1 month, or Australia in 2005 for 1 month, or Chicago in 2007 for 2 months—gives rather defined period of concentrated work activity.

Otherwise, activity was often diversified into several projects at one time, and over different places.

My activity and events during 2003-2009 spread over 15 countries, for varying lengths of time, sometimes in iterations.

Looking back at significant events in a reverse-chronological resumé

—projects, processes, presentations, talks, workshops, residencies—

all have dates, beginnings, endings, occasional overlaps, but also locations, sites of action, contexts.


These events can be augmented with personally memorable occasions and journeys,
and structured among culturally-specific seasonal dates—spring, midsummer, and new year for example.

Each event recalled is behind the current position of activity.

Super-positioned as layers above the each context are also communicational interfaces,
connecting one with the other.


In summer 2009,

I returned to the stratigraphical structures of 2002 to explore it's potential in supporting reflection, overview, and subject narrative representation of the activities I had been involved in over the years.

To paraphrase Chadha,

I constructed a mediational framework through which the temporality of practice was mapped.

This engagement was as an auto-archaeology (Harrison and Schofield, 2009) of my artistic practice as fieldwork, based on the following inquiries:

What have been the foundations of different processes?
How have they developed?
What has allowed them to develop, or to be sustained?
In which directions has the activity expanding beyond the periods of artistic fieldwork?

To answer these questions, the following were identified as useful things to 'excavate':

Identifying significant events which relate to key projects
Identifying relationships between events connecting one project to another (development)
Identifying processes before and after key case-studies: i.e. influences, developments, dissemination


Making Stratigraphical Event Visualisations

I encountered the work of 'Internet and Open Source Archaeology' project based in Genoa, and decided to follow Stefano Costa's experiments drawing Harris Matrix diagrams using the open-source GraphViz software (Costa, 2007).

Costa explains that Harris Matrix diagrams are relative chronological sequences, read from top-down, and in the case, where using DOT programming language, are formed as a 'directed graph'.

Each object is instantiated in the graph by naming it, and it's relation to another is simply coded as follows: A -> B (B comes after A).

During early July 2009 I learned DOT programming language, and started to make relativity graphs charting sections of activity and events from my resume.

The first graph I attempted related to my activity in Latvia, including the Mapmyths events, and the collaborations which happened there.

Inter-nested spatial identifiers were created:

Actual locations, which contain 'sites' of activity, that contain 'loci' which are relative chronologically sequenced within.
In creating the 'locus' objects in the graph, the following meta-data was included:

Unique identifier for each 'locus' (e.g. lv_0_0_1 referring to 'country_location_site_locus' codes)
Actual date or dates of involvement if known (e.g. 05.09-05.10.2004)
Two letter abbreviation for the country activity is situated in (e.g. LV)
Actual location (e.g. Cities, town or villages in Latvia: Riga, Karosta, Daugavpils, Aizpute)
Collaborator in the event (e.g. Organisations or individuals: RIXC, Signe, Serde etc.)
Event name (e.g. TCM Residency)


digraph figure_3
node [shape = record];
nodesep="0.3"; ranksep="0.5";
node [shape=plaintext, fontsize=14];
edge [color=gray, arrowhead=none];
/* timeline graph leftside yyyymm or yyyymmdd */
20030315 -> 20030716 -> 200309.1 -> 200309.2;
/* loci */
{ LV | Riga | RIXC }|
{15-18.03.2003 | ART+COMMUNICATIONS 2003 | locus_lv_0_0_0} "];
{rank=same; 20030315; "locus_lv_0_0_0";}

{ LV | Karosta | RIXC/K2 }|
{16-26.07.2003 | LOCATIVE MEDIA WORKSHOP | locus_lv_1_0_0}"];
{rank=same; 20030716; "locus_lv_1_0_0";}

{ LV | Karosta | K2/Calle/Kristine }|
{??.09.2003 | 1st RETURN TO KAROSTA AUTHORS NOTE | locus_lv_1_0_1}"];
{rank=same; 200309.2; "locus_lv_1_0_1";}

{ LV | Aizpute | Serde/Signe }| {??-??.09.2003 | 1ST VISIT TO AIZPUTE | locus_lv_3_0_0}"];
{rank=same; 200309.1; "locus_lv_3_0_0";}

/* stratigraphy */
edge [color=black];
edge [style=dashed];
locus_lv_0_0_0 -> locus_lv_1_0_0;

edge [color=black];
edge [style=dotted];
locus_lv_1_0_0 -> locus_lv_1_0_1;

edge [color=black];
edge [style=bold];
locus_lv_1_0_0 -> locus_lv_3_0_0 -> locus_lv_1_0_1;

Following the charting of events & involvements in Latvia, I continued next with Finnish events, and then continued gradually, over the period of 1 month, to chart events in all countries I had made work or presented between 1998-2009.

I decided to use the left-to-right instantiation of un-connected loci to order them into virtual longitude—although actually proximate—positions on an imagined world map.
In comparison to the 'approximate' spatial positioning, to be 'meaningfully' positioned in the temporal graph; in-other-words, to chart the detailed temporal development of activity,

each locus object would need actual dates (according to yyyymmdd) to place them in temporal sequence.

these dates were dutifully traced from full curriculum vitae, web documentations, project files, google search and iCal software.

However, not all dates were recoverable, especially from early periods (when different or lost laptops, hard-disks, archiving habits) did not store the data.

Once all dates and loci were associated together, each locus had a coded unique temporal 'rank' associated to it.

In total, there were 348 loci charted, each super-positioned before and after or same.

There was of course a consequence with so many vertical (mostly) non-overlapping graphical positions: the dimensions of the Graphviz output PDF were a grossly large 5987 x 33253 pixels / 2 x 11 metres.

To create a 'workable' artefact—without connecting lines—was made by printing the graph using a 36” wide laser print plotter.

When taped together the paper roll containing the print was under one metre wide (87cm), and almost five metres (487cm) long.

Handling this artefact, as can be seen in Figure 5, was challenging and involved laying it out on the floor, either partially or fully unrolled.

In work and home environments, I stretched over the representation of events, sometimes full length on my stomach. First with pencil, and then boldly, drawing by hand coloured lines, making freehand connections between different loci.



A simple distinction was made for that which connected:

Solid lines were used for 'process/project' and dashed lines for association, i.e. inward, direct influences from previous work, and outwards towards other events that followed in inspiration, or in the case of speaking or exhibit events, where the previous process/project was represented.

Colours were selected according to what was available, but also with slight association:

Red 'thread' was chosen first to describe stratigraphical application in my work, as introduced above; then blue for periods of residency outside usual work-life context, including artist residencies;
and as different projects emerged a colour was assigned to each.

Furthermore parallel time-lines were added alongside the visualisation marking the beginning and end of 'solid' processes/projects.

These were later enhanced with associated colour shading, to ease overview of the dominant or overlapping periods among the inter-connected loci.


The interpretive process I propose above is analogous to the marking of 'periods' seen in Harris matrix - stratigraphical diagram

Time-lines assisted the interpretation of the overall activity into smaller sections, and also helped identify general phases of activity.

On the basis of the previously described mark-making and drawing, the graph, still unwieldy for handling and overview, was physically cut into these phases.

As a visualisation of these overlaps and continuities, the solid and dashed lines physically drawn (and cut) on paper conceptually remind and reinforce references associations and connections.

This method proved useful in identifying which events to include when writing about a particular process or project development, and how they relate to a larger body of activity that has developed within distinguished phases.

The graph as plotted from object-orientated code onto paper, and augmented by hand-drawn connections is a reference index for the 'bare-bones' meta-data and visualisation of connections.

This method was useful in identifying which events to include when writing about a particular process or project development, and how they relate to a larger body of activity that has developed within distinguished phases.

As a reflective writer, performing an auto-archaeology on one's own practice-led fieldwork, it clarifies when to start the narrative, what was running parallel, overlapping, what to include even years after the period of 'solid' practice had closed.

I consider the work presented here to be related to such explorations into the interface between fieldwork and digital archival methods, and a likely academic space for further learning and exchange.

Other practitioners, including multi-sited artists, social-science and design researchers, ethnographers, who are involved in engaging with many sites over longer periods could benefit such generating and engaging with reflective visualisations of activity.


Contextual media and archaeology of everyday life

Contextual media, communications and survaillence/archival data-storage have become common-place in advanced networked societies such as Finland.

Pervasive documentation and archiving of everyday life, has blurred that which might be included as fieldwork, and has also extended that which might be reflected upon and analysed.

It is important, to tackle this data independent of the tools and devices which created it.

“If archaeologists work on what remains of the past”, to follow the words of Michael Shanks, in his 'Metamedia' archaeological manifesto, “We are all archaeologists now” (Shanks, 2008).


Refererences shared in this session

Barrett, J. C. (2000), 'A thesis on agency'. In M.-A. Dobres and J.E. Robb (eds), Agency in archaeology, 61-68. London: Routledge.

Barwick, L. (2006). Sustainable data from digital fieldwork: the state of the art (Sydney, 2006). In L. Barwick & N. Thieberger (Eds.), Sustainable data from digital fieldwork (pp. 1-5). Sydney: Sydney University Press.

Buchli, V. and Lucas, G. (2001a). The absent present: Archaeologies of the contemporary past. In Buchli, V. and Lucas, G. (eds) Archaeologies of the contemporary past, Routledge, London and New York, pp. 3-18.

Buchli, V. (2001b). Models of production and consumption: Archaeologies of the contemporary past. In Buchli, V. and Lucas, G. (eds) Archaeologies of the contemporary past, Routledge, London and New York, pp. 21-25.

Buchli, V. (2001c) The archaeology of alienation: A late twentieth-century British council house. In Buchli, V. and Lucas, G. (eds) Archaeologies of the contemporary past, Routledge, London and New York, pp. 158–67.

Chadha, A. (2002), 'Visions of discipline: Sir Mortimer Wheeler and the archaeological method in India (1944-1948)', Journal of Social Archaeology, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 378-401, London, Thousand Oaks CA, and New Delhi: Sage Publications.

Chadha, A. (2005), 'Asymmetrical Time: Stratigraphy in ar­chaeological practice'. Paper presented in A Symmetrical Archaeology panel, Theoretical Archaeology Group (TAG) 2005, 19-21 December. Sheffield, England. Partially published on Traumwerk Server. URL: (Retrieved 5.7.2010).

Costa, S. (2007), 'Harris Matrix with Graphviz'. Internet and Open Source Archaeology (IOSA). Blog entry, 2007.12.18. URL: (Retrieved 25.1.2010).

Eckel, G. (2001), 'Immersive Audio-Augmented Environments - The LISTEN Project'. ed. B. Banissi, F. Khosrowshahi, M. Sarfraz and A. Ursyn, Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Information Visualization (IV2001), 5-27 July. London, England. Los Alamitos CA: IEEE Computer Society Press.

Green, D., Cosmas, J., Itagaki, T., Waelkens, M., Degeest, R., and Grabczewski, E. (2001), 'A real time 3D stratigraphic visual simulation system for archaeological analysis and hypothesis testing'. In Proceedings of the Conference on Virtual Reality, Archeology, and Cultural Heritage (VAST '01). 28-30 November. Glyfada, Greece. New York: ACM, 271-278.

Green, D., Cosmas, J., Degeest, R., Waelkens, M. (2003). 'A Distributed Universal 3D Cyberworld for Archaeological Research and Education'. In Proceedings of Second International Conference on Cyberworlds (CW'03), 03-05 December. Singapore. Los Alamitos CA: IEEE Computer Society Press. pp.458.

Harris, E. (1979), Principles of Archaeological Stratigraphy. London & New York: Academic Press.

Harrison, Rodney and Schofield, John (2009). Archaeo-ethnography, auto-archaeology: Introducing archaeologies of the contemporary past. Archaeologies, 5(2), pp. 185–209.

Mitchell, P. (2011), 'The Stratified Record upon Which We Set Our Feet: The Spatial Turn and the Multilayering of History, Geography, and Geology'. In M. Dear, J. Ketchum, S. Luria and D. Richardson, (eds.), GeoHumanities: Art, History, and Text at the Edge of Place. London: Routledge, 2011. In press.

Paterson, A. G. (2002a), 'Stratigraphical Sound in 4D Space', in Proceedings of 22nd International Audio Engineering Society (AES) Conference, 15-17 June. Espoo, Finland, New York: AES Conference Papers. Available online. URL: (retrieved 20.1.2010).

Paterson, A. G. (2004), 'Mapping Narratives and Fieldwork', In M. Tuters and R. Smite (eds.), Acoustic Space issue #5: Trans Cultural Mapping, Riga: RIXC Centre for New Media Culture. Available online. URL: (retrieved 20.1.2010).

Raento M., Oulasvirta, A., Petit R., and Toivonen, R. (2005), 'ContextPhone: A Prototyping Platform for Context-Aware Mobile Applications', IEEE Pervasive Computing, Vol. 4, No. 2, April-June 2005, pp. 51-59, Los Alamitos CA: IEEE Computer Society Press.

Raento M., Evans, J., Hemment, D., and Humphries, T. (2006), 'Loca: Set To Discoverable' Project and practice-led research. Presented at ISEA2006 and ZeroOne Festival, August 7-13. San Jose, USA. URL: (retrieved 05.8.2010).

Saka, E. (2006), 'Blogging as a Research Tool for Ethnographic Fieldwork', paper submitted to Internet Research 7.0: Internet Convergences, Annual Conference of the Association of Internet Researchers, September 27-30. Brisbane, Australia. Available online. URL: (retrieved 04.08.2010).

Shanks, M. (2008), Archaeological manifesto. Metamedia Lab Wiki web-platform. URL: (Retrieved 05.8.2010).

Van Mannen, J. (1988), Tales of the Field: On writing ethnography. Chicago: Chicago Press.

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